Копирование файлов по ssh. команда scp

Using -C Parameter

Generally, one uses the -C parameter to compress files and make file transfer quicker. The parameter is convenient and will compress any file on the go. Interestingly, the file compression only takes place in the network, so when the destination system receives the file, they will get the original size and not the compressed version. But one must note that already compressed files such as .zip, .rar, etc. will not see any difference using the -C parameter.

  • Username – mike@putty
  • Destination_folder – /Documents
  • File – trial.log
  • Destination_host – smith@202.x.x.x(IP address)

The above SCP commands demonstrate an easy way to transfer files and directories from local to remote and vice versa. It also covers the way to transfer files between two remote systems. To link to Linux server, one can choose to set up SSH key-based authentication. Also, users are not required to input any passwords.

SCP Команда и Копирование Файлов

Самое замечательное в SCP то, что она даёт вам возможность передавать файлы между двумя хостами или между хостом и локальной машиной. Давайте посмотрим, как используется эта команда для каждого типа передачи.

Локальный Файл в Удалённое Местоположение

Мы скопируем локальный файл scp.zip на пользователя удалённого компьютера с названием root. За именем пользователя следует IP-адрес сервера.

Пример:

scp /users/Olha/desktop/scp.zip root@191.162.0.2:/writing/article

Если у вас не настроено автоматическое подтверждение клиента ssh, вам будет предложено ввести пароль от пользователя удалённого компьютера, после чего вы увидите индикатор прогресса. Это будет выглядеть примерно так:

root@191.162.0.2’s password:
novel3.zip   100% 0 0.0KB/s 00:00

Но допустим, что удалённый компьютер настроен на прослушивание SSH-соединений через порт, отличный от порта по умолчанию 22. В этом случае вы должны указать этот порт с помощью параметра.

scp -P 2322 /users/Olha/desktop/scp.zip root@191.162.0.2:/writing/article

Если вы также хотите изменить имя файла во время копирования, то ваша команда будет выглядеть следующим образом (если ваш порт не является портом по умолчанию, просто добавьте –P и номер порта):

scp /users/Olha/desktop/scp.zip root@191.162.0.2:/writing/article/howtoscp.zip

Если вы хотите скопировать каталог, содержащий файлы и/или подкаталоги, используйте параметр –r, описанный выше.

scp -r /users/Olha/desktop root@191.162.0.2:/writing/article

Удалённый Файл на Локальную Машину

В этом процессе источник и цель команды меняются местами, что должно отразиться на вашем синтаксисе. В этот раз мы пытаемся скопировать файл scp.zip с того же удалённого хоста на наш локальный компьютер:

scp root@191.162.0.2:/writing/articles/SCP.zip Users/Olha/Desktop

Опять же, это должно вызвать тот же вывод входа в систему через SSH, где вы должны ввести пароль, если аутентификация не была отключена привилегиями sudo или вы не заставили ssh-клиент использовать закрытый ключ на вашем компьютере.

Удалённый Файл в Другое Удалённое Местоположение

Чтобы скопировать файлы с одного удалённого хоста на другой, вам нужно будет ввести пароли для обеих учётных записей после запуска этой команды в терминале.

Пример:

scp root@191.162.0.2:/writing/article/scp.zip olha@11.10.0.1:/publishing

Приведённая выше команда копирует исходный файл /writing/article/scp.zip с одного хоста на другой. Чтобы скопировать папки, просто добавьте параметр -r и укажите путь к папке, а не файл внутри неё, как мы делали раньше.

При нормальных обстоятельствах файл копируется непосредственно с одного удалённого хоста на другой. Однако, если вы хотите перенаправить операцию через ваш компьютер, вы можете добавить опцию -3

scp -3 root@191.162.0.2:/writing/article/scp.zip olha@11.10.0.1:/publishing

Вот и всё!

Для чего нужен файловый формат .SCP?

В качестве сокращения от «Script» (скрипт) файловое расширение .scp имеет основное отношение к типу файлов «Скрипт удаленного доступа (RAS) Майкрософт» (.scp). Система RAS включает в себя набор системных служб и утилит, обеспечивающих взаимодействие с серверами PPP (Протокол «точка-точка») и SLIP (IP-протокол последовательного канала) в ряде ОС Майкрософт Windows. Для автоматизации процедур начального соединения и аутентификации RAS позволяет использовать скрипты удаленных соединений (.scp). Расширение .scp используется вместо прежнего .inf, начиная с Windows 2000.

Скрипт удаленного доступа RAS представляет собой одиночный файл .scp. Это обычный текстовый файл, в котором содержится набор команд для передачи реквизитов пользователя в ответ на запросы сервера PPP/SLIP. Любой файл .scp можно открыть и изменить в текстовом редакторе, а в каталоге «%SystemRoot%\system32\ras» находятся образцы таких скриптов (напр., «pppmenu.scp«) с подробными комментариями и описанием синтаксиса.

Как акроним от «SuperCard Pro» расширение .scp служит обозначением формата и типа файлов «Потоковый образ диска SuperCard Pro» (.scp). SuperCard Pro служит названием аппаратного интерфейсного устройства, разработанного Дж.Дрью (J.Drew) в качестве универсального копировщика флоппи-дисков. Файл .scp представляет собой идентичную копию содержимого дискеты на уровне колебаний магнитного потока с сохранением любых возможных средств защиты от копирования. SCP — это универсальный низкоуровневый формат, требующий дополнительной обработки данных. Благодаря выпущенной спецификации данного файлового формата работа с SCP-образами поддерживается несколькими эмуляторами (Atari, Commodore, Amiga и др.) и дисковыми утилитами.

Кроме того, расширение .scp относится к типу/формату файлов «Проект SQL Compare» (.scp). SQL Compare от Red Gate Software является развитым коммерческим инструментом сравнения баз данных Майкрософт SQL Server в среде Майкрософт Windows. Для каждой задачи по сравнению БД в SQL Compare создается файл проекта (.scp), в котором хранятся пути БД, выбранные объекты и прочие настройки.

В сфере корпоративных вычислительных сетей расширение .scp относится к текстовым файлам скриптов, используемых в промышленных маршрутизаторах серии AR700 производства Allied Telesis, Inc. В маршрутизаторах AR700 скрипты .scp используются для программирования различных автоматизированных действий, выполняемых маршрутизатором в ходе его нормальной работы. Загрузочные скрипты AR700 сохраняются в файлах с расширением .cfg.

Платное приложение DVD Reauthor Pro от DVDLogic Software для реконструкции DVD-дисков в среде Майкрософт Windows использует расширение .scp как обозначение своих сводных скриптов DVD-дисков. Такой сводный скрипт (.scp) представляет собой текстовый файл, содержащий набор инструкций по обработке содержимого DVD-диска. Сгенерированные с помощью DVD Reauthor скрипты SCP можно импортировать в программе Sonic Scenarist или объединять утилитой Script Merger.

В рамках среды для мультимедийного творчества Slackermedia на базе Slackware расширение .scp предлагается в качестве ярлыка для файлов демонстрации экрана Screenwriter.el, создаваемых в Emacs в режиме «сценариста» (screenwriter-mode). Такой файл .scp содержит обычный текст.

SCP Command Syntax

Every protocol has a basic syntax and is best to learn it before diving into using commands to transfer files or directories. The syntax is homogeneous to the scp command in Unix-like operating systems for copying files and directories.

The general SCP command takes the following form:

Below is the breakdown of the expression:

  • SRC_HOST:]file1 – this indicates the source file.
  • DEST_HOST:]file2 – this stipulates the destination file
  • OPTION – it specifies options such as recursive copy, cipher, ssh port, etc.

Note: It is necessary to specify user and host specification for remote files. Also, one must define the absolute or relative path for local files.

The SCP comes with various parameters that allow users to control every feature easily. Among them, the most common are as follows:

  • -q – The option will repress the progress meter and non-error messages.
  • -r – This will copy files recursively.
  • -P – It defines the SSH port of the remote host
  • -C – The option compresses data to speed up file transfer
  • -p – It safeguards files from being modified or accessed.
  • (:) – The SCP uses colons to differentiate between local and remote destinations.

The users must also ensure to obtain an SSH key or password before beginning to transfer files as the command-utility uses SSH for data transfer. The SSH key is used to validate the remote systems. Before initiating file transfer using SCP, users must ensure they have read permission for the source file. Also, one must have write permission consent on the target system.

One of the drawbacks of SCP is that it overwrites a file without giving a warning it shares the same name with another file in the same location. Also, it is best to open SCP in a tmux session when transferring large files.

CP vs SCP: Understanding the Difference

If you have been using “cp command” on your local Linux machine, SCP won’t be difficult to understand. It is essential for both commands to have a source and destination file-system location to perform a copy operation. But the main difference here is that the SCP requires one or both of the locations to be on a remote system.

For instance, one might apply the below cp command:

cp /main/john/pictures/picture*.png /main/john/archive

This command would initiate a copy operation, where all the files in the directory pictures in user john’s main directory with a name starting with picture.png” would be copied into the directory “archive” in the “main” directory.

The same operation can be performed using SCP command:

scp /main/john/pictures/picture*.png john@myhost.com:/main/john/archive

As shown above, when using the SCP command with the login name John, those same files would be uploaded to the server myhost.com into the remote directory /main/john/archive. The SCP will let the uploading process initiate only if the user “john” provides his remote password.

A remote location could also be specified as a source if one needs to download the files. For instance,

scp john@myhost.com:/main/john/archive/picture*.png /main/john/downloads

on myhost.com with the name starting with “picture and ending in .png,” into the local directory /main/john/downloads.

Using SCP on a Remote Location

It’s also possible if a remote host is specified as both the source and the destination. For example, using the command below, a file can be transferred from one remote directory, that is on myhost.com, to another directory that is on the same server.

scp someuser@myhost.com:/main/someuser/dira/file.txt someuser@myhost.com:/main/someuser/dirb

In another case, SCP can be used when a file transfers from one host to the other. Use the following command:

scp user@host1.com:/onedir/file.txt user@host2.com:/otherdir

Take into account that the files that are transferred using SCP are secured and encrypted like the SSH and SFTP.

Copy Files Between Two Remote Systems Using SCP Command

One of the best advantages of using SCP command-line utility is that it does not require any login to a server to transfer files between two remote systems.

Below is the command to transfer files between the two remote servers:

For example, the breakdown of the above command is

  • File to transfer – experiment/experiment.txt
  • Remote system – host10.com
  • Other remote machines -host20.com
  • Directory – /experiment.

The user will have to enter the password for both remote accounts to transfer the file.

In case, one wants to direct the traffic via this system from which the command is executed than use the -3 parameter. Below is the command to route the traffic to the system:

The best free SCP servers for Linux

1. OpenSSH SCP server for Linux

Most Linux distributions come with Open SSH installed, although it usually is not running by default. You’ll likely have to start the Open SSH daemon to allow SSH connections which will, in turn, allow SCP file copies.

The package name in most cases is openssh-server.

Installing it should be as simple as running your package manager’s install command.

Once the server is installed and running, existing system users will be able to use an SCP client to connect, and copy files to and from directories on the server where they have read permissions.

Unlike FTP which is usually set up to allow multiple users access to the same set of upload and download directories, SSH drops users into their home directory by default. You may have to tweak your file system permissions if you would like your users to be able to access other directories on the server.

2. Dropbear SCP server

There may be situations where a full-blown SCP server is not feasible or desirable. In that case, smaller-footprint SCP servers such as Dropbear can help. Dropbear is aimed at embedded systems such as routers that may need SSH or SCP functionality but it can be used as an SCP server on any POSIX compliant platform.

System administrators wishing to customize Dropbear will need to have some moderate skills. Tasks such as disabling basic SSH, but leaving SCP functioning, will require modifications to the Dropbear makefile, and a recompile of the executable.

Description

The scp command can be thought of as a network version of cp. For example, you might use the following cp command:

cp /home/stacy/images/image*.jpg /home/stacy/archive

…which would copy all files in the directory images in user stacy‘s home directory whose name starts with «image» and ends in «.jpg» into the directory archive in her home directory.

Similarly, you could use the scp command:

scp /home/stacy/images/image*.jpg :/home/stacy/archive

…to upload those same files to the server myhost.com, using the login name stacy, into the remote directory /home/stacy/archive. scp will ask for stacy‘s remote password before initiating the upload.

Or, you could specify a remote location as the source location if you want to download files. For example,

scp :/home/stacy/archive/image*.jpg /home/stacy/downloads

…would download all the files in the remote directory /home/stacy/archive on myhost.com whose name starts with «image» and ends in .jpg, into the local directory /home/stacy/downloads.

You can also specify a remote host as both the source and destination. For instance, the following command will transfer a file from one remote directory on myhost.com to another directory on the same server:

scp :/home/user/dir1/file.txt :/home/user/dir2

…while this command will transfer a file from one remote host to another:

scp :/somedir/somefile.txt :/anotherdir

Keep in mind that all scp transfers have the benefit of being secure: they are encrypted, like an ssh or sftp session.

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How to use SCP?

The SCP client can upload files to the SSH server or request files and directories for downloading.

The server, in return, sends all the subdirectories and the files that are available for download. Note that, the server controls the file downloads so there can be security risks if the client is unintentionally connected to a malicious server.

SCP is a native command in most Operating Systems, such as MacOS, Windows, or Linux.

You can find it just by entering the “scp” command on the terminal line. But you can also find it in common network file transfer applications, such as PuTTy (ExtraPuTTy).

Examples

scp myfile.txt :myfile.txt

Copies the file myfile.txt to the remote host example.computerhope.com, using the username hope to log in.

scp :/home/hope/* .

Copies all files in the remote directory /home/hope on the remote host myremotehost.com into the local working directory.

scp -r :/home/jeff/documents /home/jeff/downloads/documents

Copies all files in the remote directory /home/jeff/documents on the server myhost.com, including all subdirectories and the files they contain, into the local directory /home/jeff/downloads/documents.

scp -l 100 :/home/jeff/archive.zip .

Transfer the remote file /home/jeff/archive.zip on the remote host myhost.com as the user jeff into the local working directory, and limit the transfer to 100 kilobytes per second.

scp :/files/file1.zip :/archives
scp -3 :/files/file1.zip :/archives

Same as the above command, but rather than directly transferring the file from one remote host to the other, the transfer is routed through the local host.

SCP and SFTP: Secure Alternatives to FTP

Although FTP is still widely used on networks and the internet to this day, it is inherently insecure. Where login credentials are required for a session, the username and password are sent in plain text, meaning that any interceptor could read them.

SCP is one of the two secure alternatives for your FTP tasks. The other option is the Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), also known as SSH FTP because, like SCP, it uses SSH for protection.

The Differences Between SCP and SFTP

The difference between SFTP and SCP is that the later is purely a file transfer system, whereas SFTP includes commands to query and change the remote computer’s directory structure.

FTP over SSH

To add to the confusion of secure FTP alternatives, you may also hear about “FTP over SSH.” This is more of a technique than a protocol. You open a standard FTP session within an SSH session, which is classified as “tunneling.” Once you understand that FTP requires two separate connections to form a session, you start to realize that FTP over SSH can soon get messy.

FTPS adds SSL

The FTPS methodology adds a procedure to include Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protection (replaced by Transport Layer Security) into an FTP session. This combination of protocols has security weaknesses, however, because the commands to begin security measures are sent in plain text and can be intercepted.

Substitute TFTP with SCP for Encryption

TFTP has no security measures at all and should only be used on physically secure private networks. You could substitute SCP for TFTP to add encryption to the distribution of configuration files on your network because it is a more lightweight secure file transfer system than SFTP.

Copying the Local File to a Remote System

Copying a local file to remote is very and can be achieved by executing the following SCP command:

Let’s breakdown the above command.

In the command:

  • Filename – trial.txt is the file that a user wants to copy to the remote system.
  • Remote server – remote_mike is the name of the remote server

1. The command ends with the path of the directory. In case, one does not specify the path; the file will be copied to the home directory of the remote system. The file will begin to transfer once a user enters the password. Below is what will be the outcome of the code:

2. In case, one removes the files from the location; then it will copy the file with the original name. If one changes the file name then they need to mention the new name in the command which is probe.txt So the new command will look like this:

3. A user has to use the -P parameter to define the port in case of SSH on the remote system is listening to a different port than the default.

4. In case, a user wants to copy the entire directory rather than they have to use the -r parameter for copying files recursively. Below is the command using -r option to copy a directory from local to a remote system:

What is SCP (Secure Copy Protocol)?

The Secure Copy Protocol or “SCP” helps to transfer computer files securely from a local to a remote host. It is somewhat similar to the File Transfer Protocol “FTP”, but it adds security and authentication.

The SCP runs on Port 22, and some people say that it’s a combination of the BSD RCP and the SSH protocol.

The RCP is used to transfer the files, and the SSH protocol provides authentication and encryption, so SCP can be considered a mixture of these two protocols.

The data that is being transferred remains confidential, so the SCP can be used to successfully block packet sniffers that can extract valuable information from the data packets.

The SCP can also benefit from using SSH because it allows the inclusion of permissions and timestamps for the file that needs to be uploaded.

What is SCP Command?

In a controversial viewpoint, developers of the OpenBSD Secure Shell (OpenSSH) stated that SCP is outdated and not the best pick for transferring files in modern time.

SCP commands

SCP is still very popular and leveraged by many to securely transfer files between hosts on a network. Commonly, most use the Secure Copy Protocol programs such as Putty, WinSCP, Filezilla, and more. However, the most widely used application is the ‘command line SCP.’ It comes in almost every SSH implementations.

In simple terms, the Secure Copy Protocol facilitates file or directory transfer between two locations. Below are things that people can do with SCP:

  • Transfer files from the local machine to a remote system and vice versa.
  • It allows file transfer between two remote systems from the local machine.

Most use SCP as it encrypts files and passwords at the time of transferring. Hence, preventing anyone from prying or copying sensitive information by interfering in the network.

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